Views: 2 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-07-17 Origin: Site
Wellhead tools are essential components used in the oil and gas industry during drilling, completion, and production operations. They are installed at the wellhead, the structure above the borehole that provides a secure interface for drilling, completion, and production equipment. Here are some common wellhead tools:
Elevators are a type of wellhead tool used to handle and manipulate tubular components such as casing, tubing, and drill pipe during well construction, intervention, and maintenance operations. They are essential for safely and efficiently installing or retrieving these tubulars from the wellbore. Elevators are designed to securely grip the outer surface of the tubular and provide a means of suspending the tubular from the rig's hoisting system.
Common types of elevators used in wellhead operations include:
Tubing elevators are used to handle tubing strings, which are smaller-diameter pipes that run inside the well casing. They are typically used during well completion, workover, and production operations to install or retrieve tubing from the wellbore.
Casing elevators are larger and more robust than tubing elevators. They are designed to handle the heavy and larger-diameter casing strings used to line the wellbore during drilling and well construction.
Drill pipe elevators are specialized for handling sections of drill pipe during drilling operations. They are essential for tripping drill pipe in and out of the well during drilling and wellbore maintenance operations.
Slip-type elevators, also known as slip-type casing elevators, are versatile tools used to handle various types of tubular components, including casing, tubing, and drill pipe. They use slip segments that grip the outer surface of the tubular to provide support during lifting operations.
Bail Elevators are simple, often hinged devices that attach to the top of a tubular component. They are used to lift the tubular with a hoisting system, such as a crane, during rigging-up or rigging-down operations.
Tongs play a crucial role in ensuring the proper installation and maintenance of wellbore components, as well as minimizing the risk of leaks and other integrity issues.
There are two main types of tongs commonly used in wellhead operations:
Casing tongs are heavy-duty power tongs designed to handle larger-diameter casing strings used in well construction. They are equipped with robust jaws and provide high torque capabilities to tighten or loosen casing connections efficiently.
Drill pipe tongs are used to handle sections of drill pipe during drilling operations. They are specially designed to grip and rotate the drill pipe, making it easier to make up or break out connections during tripping operations.
Tubing tongs are used to handle smaller-diameter tubing strings. They are designed to provide a secure grip on the tubing and offer sufficient torque for proper installation and removal of tubing during well completion and production activities.
Manual tongs are operated by rig personnel who use physical force to apply torque for making up or breaking out tubular connections. They are typically used for smaller-sized tubulars or in situations where lower torque requirements are sufficient.
Power tongs, also known as casing tongs or drill pipe tongs, are motorized tools used for higher torque applications. They are driven by hydraulic or pneumatic power and are capable of exerting significantly more force than manual tongs. Power tongs are used to handle larger-sized tubulars and provide faster and more efficient make-up and break-out operations.
Slips are an integral part of wellhead equipment and are used in various operations during drilling, well completion, workover, and maintenance activities.
The primary function of slips is to securely hold tubulars in place to prevent them from moving or slipping during operations such as running or retrieving tubulars from the wellbore. Slips are designed with teeth or inserts on their inner surface that bite into the outer surface of the tubular when downward force is applied.
The design and size of slips depend on the specific application and the diameter of the tubular being handled. Different types of slips are used for different tubular sizes and operations. For example, casing slips are used for casing strings, tubing slips for tubing strings, and drill pipe slips for drill pipe.
Slips are typically used in conjunction with other wellhead tools, such as elevators or tongs, to ensure the safe and efficient handling of tubulars during well operations.
These are just a few examples of common wellhead tools used in the oil and gas industry. The specific tools and configurations can vary depending on the well's design, depth, and intended purpose. Safety, reliability, and proper installation and maintenance of wellhead equipment are crucial to ensure efficient and safe oil and gas production operations.